Friday, 2 March 2018

Aromatherapy 101

     Aromatherapy is a complementary therapy based on holistic principles, using the application of essential oils to improve mental, physical, emotional and spiritual well-being. 

Aromatherapy is simply a way of awakening your senses with a particular scent.

You might want to massage a combination of Essential Oils onto your skin, or add a few drops to your bath water.

     Pure, unadulterated essential oils are derived & extracted from botanical sources: for example from the leaves, roots, seeds, flowers or bark of a plant or tree, by means of steam distillation, expression, solvent extraction, maceration or enfleurage. They may be extracted from every part of the plant: flowers, leaves, fruit, seed, root, bark, gum, etc. 

Pure Essentials Oils are highly volatile & evaporate quickly.

Due to the large quantity of plant material required, pure essential oils are expensive, but they are also highly effective – only a few drops at a time are required to achieve the desired aromatherapy results.

Only pure natural essential oils have any therapeutic benefits.

DO: Be selective of where you purchase your essential oils. 

      The quality of essential oils varies widely from company to company. Additionally, some companies may falsely claim that their oils are undiluted or pure when they aren't.

Skin absorption
Most of the chemical constituents of essential oils have a molecular weight of less than 1000m (m = weight of molecule). Theoretically, any substance with a molecular weight below 1000m should be absorbed by the skin.

Our sense of smell connects directly with the limbic system of the brain, which processes memories, associations and emotions.

Essential oils are volatile and very sensitive to heat, light and oxidation.

     When you buy a new Essential Oil, write the date on the vial.
Store all of your Essential Oils in a cool, dry place, out of direct sunlight.
     Most Essential Oils last from 1 to 3 years, when stored in a glass vial or jar (amber- or cobalt-colored is best). The exception is any Citrus oil, which only lasts for 6 months to 1 year.

The Perfect Aromatherapy Cupboard 

This cupboard should consist of essentials oils, carrier oils, dried herbs and dried flower petals.

Essential oils are extremely concentrated. They mostly need to be diluted before use.

In the bath 
Using essential oils in the bath is an extremely effective way of influencing mood, although rather wasteful as much of the essential oil sticks to the sides of the bath.

Add from 5 to 10 drops in a tub of warm water. 

If you’d prefer to use bath salts, use a blend of epsom salts (good for sore, aching muscles), sea salt, and baking soda. Add 6 to 10 drops of your chosen oil blend. Either add to warm bath, or use as a “salt glow” rub before the bath.

- Dosage: up to 6 drops in 10-15ml (2-3 teaspoons) of carrier oil or lotion. 

Pot Pourri
Add a few drops of your favourite essential oil on dried flowers.

     Essential oils can be diffused into the air through dry heat, steam or mist or by fan-assisted evaporation. This is an effective way of changing mood, purifying the atmosphere or getting essential oils into the respiratory and olfactory systems. 

 Floral Waters
     Since essential oils do not dissolve in water it is best & easiest to first dissolve the essential oils in 2/3 times their quantity of high proof vodka

 Do not spray on painted surfaces as oils may stain paintwork. 

Dry Brushing
    To stimulate the skin, and the lymphatic system all over the body use a natural bristle bath brush with 2/3 drops of a stimulating essential oil (rosemary or pink grapefruit are good choices if not contraindicated) to the bristles and

- brush your skin, from the toes up to the heart, from the fingers to the heart, always working from the extremities toward the heart. Brush lightly but cover your whole body. 

Can Essential Oils Be Used Internally?
I do NOT Recommend that you ever use Essential Oils internally, unless you bought the oil at your Health Shop as Safe to be used as such. 
The ancient greek term “pharmakopea” has two meanings...“medicine” and “poison”...because anything powerful enough to heal is also powerful enough to do damage.

Most Essential Oils are NOT SAFE  for internal use.

There are several ways to enjoy essential oils, including: massage, compress, baths (full, foot and sitz), steam inhalation and diffusion. 

Always avoid eye contact.

   In aromatherapy, vegetable, nut or seed oils are often used to dilute and transport essential oils, making absorption easier. These are referred to as carrier or base oils. It is recommended that you always dilute essential oils with carrier oils before using them directly on your skin. Carrier oils that you purchase should be pure, unadulterated, naturally extracted and always cold-pressed to ensure that the vitamins and therapeutic properties are not destroyed during the process of being manufactured. 




Sweet Almond Oil 

   The most popular all-purpose carrier oil because of its light texture, and pleasant scent. Almond oil is a good massage medium to help spread the oil and carry the essential oil mixture, while still allowing it to be absorbed by the skin.


Jojoba oil

Jojoba Oil 

     Combines readily with any essential or carrier oil, aiding their penetration into the skin. It is very similar in composition to human oil secretions. It is a radiant natural moisturizer, suitable for all skin types and in particular, an excellent conditioner for the hair. Jojoba has antioxidant properties, thus keeping other oils from going rancid. It is best to purchase a high grade, unrefined, and certified organic cold-pressed oil. 



 Rosehip Oil 

     Has beneficial healing properties for the skin, and is widely used in cosmetic and dermatological industries. It is a natural moisturizer for the skin. It contains retinoic acid, a derivative of retinol (Vitamin A). Always look for 100% pure oil.

      When choosing essential oils you will need to take into account the effect you would like them to have on you and your environment, any related safety issues, your budget - some oils are harder to extract than others and may be available only from limited regions, so prices differ greatly - and, of course, the fragrance.

If you find a particular scent unpleasant, your dislike of it may reduce its potential benefits to you. We have described the fragrance as well as the properties of each oil as best we can to assist you in selecting oils that are unfamiliar to you.

Essential oils should never be used undiluted on the skin. 

Some oils can cause sensitization or allergic reactions in some individuals. When using a new oil topically for the first time, do a skin patch test on a small area of skin (it's easy)

Some essential oils are phototoxic and can cause irritation, inflammation, blistering, redness and/or burning when exposed to UVA rays.

Some essential oils should be avoided during pregnancy or by those with asthma, epilepsy, or with other health conditions. Be sure to research/review the safety precautions associated with each essential oil that you use.

     Some oils are not recommended for people of certain ages or suffering from certain conditions. 

-     Most Essential Oils are contraindicated during pregnancy, lactation & if you have cancer or during cancer treatment.

-    Because contra-indications are so complicated, I’m not going to attempt listing all of them in this article. Refer to the safety information in aromatherapy books and the Which oils can be dangerous.

Many Essential  oils can cause severe sun damage (photosensitivity). I suggest avoiding using Essential Oils when sun bathing, unless you know for sure which ones are safe to use.

-     Clary should not be used when consuming alcohol, because it can greatly increase its effects. 

  •     Marjoram and Chamomile can cause drowsiness.

  •   If you are using anti-coagulant therapy (blood thinners) avoid oils high in eugenol [Clove, Cinnamon Leaf, and Bay Laurel (pimenta racemosa)].

-   Two oils with almost identical components that are too dangerous to use lightly, if at all, are Birch (Betula lenta) and Wintergreen. 

Sensitizing Oils
Essential oils with a proven or suspected history of causing sensitization (allergies):
  • Citronella
  • Clary Sage (suspect)

Some oils should only be used by a clinically trained aromatherapist.

If you are unsure . . . DON’T use !

Essential oils can be categorized into broad groups based on their aromas. An example categorical system is as follows:

Spa Banner Lavender


Pink Rose Banner

• Floral
For example: Rose, Geranium, Lavender, Neroli, Jasmine

• Oriental
For example: Ginger, Patchouli

• Woody
For example: Pine, Cedar, Sandal wood, Juniper Berry

  • Resinous
For example: Frankincense, Myrrh

Vetiver Essential Oil


Angelica Essential Oil

• Earthy
For example: Angelica, Oakmoss, Vetiver, Patchouli

Melissa Essential Oil Leaf


Clary Sage

• Herbaceous
For example:  Melissa, Marjoram, Rosemary, Basil, Camomile, Hyssop, Clary Sage

• Minty
 Peppermint, Spearmint


Tea Tree Essential Oil

Aromatherapy Eucalyptus Essential Oil

• Medicinal/Camphorous
For example: Eucalyptus, Cajuput, Tea Tree

• Spicy
For example: Ginger, Nutmeg, Clove, Cinnamon




• Citrus
For example: Grapefruit, Bergamot, Orange, Lemon, Lime

Oils in the same category generally blend well together.

Be creative & experiment.

But to get you started, below are some categories that generally blend well together:
•    Florals blend well with Spicy, citrusy and Woody oils.
•   Woody  oils generally blend well with all categories.
•   Spicy & Oriental oils blend well with Florals, Oriental and Citrus oils. Be careful not to overpower the blend with the spicy or oriental oils.
•   Mint oils blend well with Citrus, Woody, Herbaceous & Earthy oils.

 Some essential oils evaporate more quickly than others. 

As the oils in a blend evaporate, the aroma will change to reflect the aroma of the remaining oils.
  • Oils that evaporate the quickest, usually within 1-2 hours, are called “top notes.” 
  • Oils that evaporate with 2-4 hours are considered “middle notes.” 
  • Oils that take the longest time to evaporate are referred to as “base notes.”

Other blending Tips:

1.   Add Personifiers 1st
2.   Enhancers 2nd
3.   Equalizers 3rd, and
4.   Modifiers 4th

1. Personifier (1-5 % of the blend)
-   Oils that have very sharp, strong and long-lasting fragrances.
-   They also have dominant properties with strong therapeutic action.

For Example: Angelica, Cinnamon, Clary sage, Chamomile, Helichrysum, Neroli, Patchouli, Peppermint, Rose, Wintergreen & Ylang Ylang.

2. Enhancer (50-80% of the blend)
-   Should be the predominant essential oil as it serves to enhance the properties of the other essential oils in the blend.
-   Its fragrance is not as sharp as the personifiers and is usually of a shorter duration.

For Example: Bergamot, Eucalyptus, Frankincense, Geranium, Hyssop, Jasmine, Lavender, Marjoram,  Tea Tree, Melissa, Myrtle, Palmarosa, Patchouli, Ravensara, Rose, Rosemary, Sage.

3. Equalizer (10-15% of the blend)
-   Oils that create balance & synergy among the essential oils contained in the blend. -   Their fragrance is also not as sharp as the personifier and is of a shorter duration.

◦ For Example: Bergamot, Cedarwood, Frankincense, Geranium, Ginger, Hyssop, Jasmine, Juniper, Lavender, Lemongrass, Marjoram,  Tea Tree, Melissa, Myrrh, Myrtle, Neroli, Chamomile, Rose, Rosewood, Sandalwood.

4. The Modifier (5-8% of the blend)
- Oils have a mild and short fragrance.
- These essential oils add harmony to the blend.

◦ For Example: Angelica, Bergamot, Eucalyptus, Grapefruit, Hyssop, Jasmine, Lavender, Lemon, Melissa, Myrrh, Neroli, Rose, Rosewood, Sandalwood, Ylang Ylang.

Aromatic blending for the sheer pleasure of the aroma is a combination of creativity and science. 
   The focus of blending should be on the final aroma, not on its therapeutic properties.

• When creating a new blend, start out small with a total number of drops:  5 - 10. By starting small, you waste less oil in your blending experiments.
• Blend & store your beautiful creations, in 2ml Blue / Amber “shortie” bottles.
• Keep a notebook that lists each oil that you used with the number of drops used for each oil.
• Be sure to label your blends clearly.
• Start off your blending experiments by creating blends that are made up in the following ratio: 30% of the oils from top notes, 50% from middle notes, & 20% from base notes.

  •  1 tablespoon Carrier Oil
  •   7-15 drops of your perfume blend

-   Blend all oils together well and store in an airtight dark-colored glass container. 
- This blend has a heavy concentration of essential oils and is meant to be used sparingly. 
- Check all safety data for the oils in your blend and do a skin patch test prior to using.

•  4 1/4 teaspoons Vodka
•  1 1/2 teaspoons Distilled Water
•  30 drops of your perfume blend

  •   Blend all ingredients well and store in an airtight 1 ounce dark-colored glass container. 
  • Let sit for two weeks, shaking the bottle 1-3 times daily to mix the oils. 
  • After 2 weeks has, filter the perfume through a coffee filter and rebottle (using the same bottle is fine). 
  • This recipe has a heavy concentration of essential oils and is meant to be used sparingly. 
  • Check all safety data for the oils in your blend and do a skin patch test prior to using.

•  4 1/2 teaspoons Vodka
•  2 teaspoons Distilled Water
•  14 drops of your perfume blend


  •   Blend all ingredients well and store in an airtight 1 ounce dark-colored glass container. 
  • Let sit for 2 weeks, shaking the bottle 1-3 times daily to mix the oils. 
  • After 2 weeks has, filter the body splash through a coffee filter and rebottle into a one-ounce, fine-mist sprayer bottle.

Angelica Essential Oil 2

Angelica Essential Oil

Good Vibrations ~ Emotionally Calming

Angelica Essential Oil is a delicate oil extracted from the Root of Angelica.

NOTE: Angelica root essential oil is phototoxic, which means it should not be used topically on skin that will be exposed to sunlight in the next 12 hours.

       A refreshing and cooling essential oil with a sweet fruity odour. It soothes nervous tension, and can help with depression and anxiety. It has a soothing effect on the psyche while being refreshing at the same time.

      The aroma of Bergamot Essential Oil is reminiscent to that of orange, but it is wonderfully more complex.  It almost seems to possess an underlying floral characteristic to it.

Bergamot Essential Oil

Bergamot Essential Aromatherapy Oil

** Just as colour, sound and stones have a certain resonance with the Chakras, so do different plants. Use the fragrances which are the most appealing and pleasing to you.

Calming & Sedative 

Common names: English chamomile, sweet chamomile and garden chamomile


Aromatherapy Chamomile Essential Oil


Attar of Oud Essential oil is an extremely rare and precious oil extracted from trees in the Aquilaria family, which grow throughout northeastern India, Bhutan, and parts of southeast Asia.   Also known as Oud, Aloeswood, Agar, Oudh, and Oodh, premium Agarwood oil is produced when the wood is infected by a specific kind of mold, a process that is both rare and that requires a long time to complete.
Most Attar of Oud Essential Oils will be a distillation composed of 20% oud (also known as agarwood oil) and 80% Hawaiian sandalwood. It is a more affordable alternative to pure oud oil, and can be used for both perfumery and therapeutic purposes.

Due to the complex and long-running process that’s needed for the oil to be created, oud is very expensive. As a consequence, buyers need to beware of the many synthetic, cheaper alternatives have recently appeared on the market.

Mysterious Perfume:

Be sure to always follow label instructions.
       Clary Sage has a tonifying, strengthening and warming effect, helping to create feelings of well-being and calm. It's excellent for treating tension and depression, particularly due to hormonal problems. It also prevents excessive sweating.

  • Clary Sage contains natural estriol, a phytoestrogen.


Clary Sage


~   Loving Life  ~

     Champaka /  Nag Champa is known as the Joy Perfume Tree or Yellow Jade Orchid Tree in English.
     Champaka essential oil is derived from a subtropical tree with gorgeous & deeply fragrant flowers native to south and east Asia.

  •   Embracing, enfolding, instantly transporting, rich, sensuous, dreams fulfilled, pure luxury, delight across the levels and layers.

 ~   Relaxing, Euphoric & Sensual  ~

-    Its seductive and beautiful fragrance produces a celestial atmosphere that soothes, relaxes and strengthens the mind after a stressful day.

Champaka Essential Oil

Champaka Essential Oil 2

  • Cistus (Cistus Ladanifer) / Rose of Sharon essential oil comes from a rose that has a soft, honey-like scent.

  •  It is believed to be the biblical rose of Sharon. Calming and uplifting, it is helpful for meditating and counseling. 

  • Cedarwood Oil is derived from the wood, roots and foliage of various types of conifers and has many uses in medicine and perfumery. Used throughout the centuries by the Sumerians and Egyptians among others for spiritual embalming purposes , Cedarwood symbolises a source of protection, wisdom and abundance.

    Cedarwood Himalayan (Cedrus Deodora): Extracted from the cedar trees in the Himalayan Mountains, this Himalayan Cedarwood essential oil is slightly sweeter and has stronger middle notes than the Atlas Cedarwood.
Himalayan Cedarwood is popular in meditational practices for its grounding properties and also its ability to clear away negativity and instill positive energies!

Cedarwood Atlas (Cedrus Atlantica): Cedarwood Atlas is Organically grown in the high elevation of the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

Cedarwood Atlas has a woody, balsamic aroma highlighted by sweet rich honey-like fruity notes that make a great addition to the perfumery world, as it is often added as a base in perfume blends.

Cedarwood is known to be calming and grounding and is often used to relieve nervous tension and anxiety. The aroma promotes serotonin release in the brain, resulting in a calm and relaxed mind and mood. Also, Cedarwood is used in aromatherapy to instil confidence, connectedness, and stabilization.

Bright & Breezy . . . Light, ethereal, lucid, light hearted, fresh, light touch, easy, floating.

     Dianthus is derived from Greek, meaning di, Zeus and anthos, flower, “the flower of Zeus,” indicating its importance in the religious context of Ancient Greece.
     Carnation is a good choice for people who get too dour, intense, sarcastic or take the weight of the world on their shoulders and themselves far too seriously. Can be helpful when a light touch of inspiration is required to resolve a problem or a situation.

A very warming, stimulating and uplifting oil.

Cypress Essential Oil

Cypress Essential Oil 2

Calendula oil is a smooth and calming oil extracted from petals of the Marigold flower.

Calendula has been used in medicinal healing for centuries.

Calendula is known for its excellent anti-inflammatory and vulnerary properties, and is often used for wounds, ulcers, bruises, rashes, and skin conditions. Calendula oil is also used to reduce the appearance of spider veins and varicose veins.

Calendula is recommended to be added to massage oil to help to heal, soothe, and soften. It may be added to skin and body oil blends or can be used directly on the skin when used in our 25% dilution in Argan oil.

Calendula Marigold Tea Healthy Detox Wellbeing

Calendula Essential oil

Calendula Essential oil 2

Davana essential oil is extracted from the fragrant herb Davana (Arthemisa pallens) native to southern India. 

-       Davana is an important aromatic herb valued for its delicate mysterious fragrance used in high end perfumes. 

-  Davana essential oil is a really nice perfume ingredient, and in small amounts considered aphrodisiac. 

-  Davana essential oil has a sweet, round, candy-like floral aroma. It has a Middle Note.

Friends In High Places ”

-     Damiana is a small flowering shrub native to Central and South America.

-       Damiana is a great essence for people who have meditation and self discovery mixed up with endless navel gazing. We may learn how bad the problem is by going inside, but only by going outside do we see the bigger picture and find the solutions. With the strong forward and upward lifting action of Damiana, it is very good for vision quests and to contact the higher forces.


Aromatherapy Eucalyptus Essential Oil

Be sure to always follow label instructions.
Coloured Lights "
Different, pulls forward and up, lifts, raises & energizes, delicious, exciting, wonderment awaits you, going beyond the ordinary.

      Elemi (Canarium luzonicum) has a spicy, incense-like scent that is soft and somewhat balsamic. A member of the same botanical family as frankincense and myrrh, it has been used traditionally in Europe for the skin. Elemi is highly regarded for reducing the look of fine lines and wrinkles, skin support, and for soothing muscles after exercise.

     Used extensively in ancient Egypt and the Middle East, and later throughout Europe, Elemi has a long history of use in both medicinal and cosmetic formulas. Often used in skin care, soaps, and incense formulas, Elemi is still used extensively in therapeutic preparations. Highly regarded as a fixative, the Egyptians used Elemi resin as a part of the embalming process.

Dilute in a carrier oil before skin application. Keep away from children and out of eyes. Do not take internally or apply undiluted to the skin. For further advice on using essential oils to treat medical conditions, we recommend you seek advice from a professional.



Contraindications in usage of elemi oil

Avoid in pregnancy, with infants and young children.
Elemi essential oil is not recommended for the first 4 months of pregnancy. It does not apply to children under 5 years. When using the oil for the first time it is recommended to test for allergic reactions.

Frankincense is also known as Olibanum.

Frankincense is a tree resin that has been used and valued since ancient times for its medicinal, cosmetic, aromatic and spiritual applications.

Frankincense: "The Phoenix"
Boswellia Carteri: Joyous, sensuous, far reaching, fast travelling, inviting, mysterious, rebirth.

Frankincense (Boswellia thurifera) Its toning and rejuvenating properties make it one of the most important oils for improving skin tone and treating aging skin and wrinkles. It also reduces scar tissue. It has an uplifting action and is useful if feeling stressed, tired, overwhelmed or anxious.

Be sure to always follow label instructions.
The Silver Lining 

Plumeria Rubra: Warmly inviting, positive, strong, sunshine, angelic, fresh, brightening, lightening, hope, positive expectations.

Plumeria Alba : Wonderful sweet smelling essential oil, which comes from the plumeria flower. Ancient Indians have believed the Plumeria plant to be the “Tree of Life” due to its healing capacity. The oil itself is said to rejuvenate and refresh the mind, body, and spirit of those who inhale.

     Frangipani essentil oil is derived from a tropical tree with gorgeous & deeply fragrant flowers.The essential oils is 100% pure and natural, produced from the genus tree Plumeria. Frangipani is native to Central America, Mexico, the Caribbean, South America as well as tropical islands. In Sri Lanka, it is referred to as "Araliya" or Ärali" and as the "Temple Tree".

It is commonly referred to as the Frangipani after the famous fragrance created by Muzio Frangipani. Frangipani tree is known as the “Tree of Life”, "Temple tree", other common names are: Plumeria, In Hawaii, the name is "melia", In India, the name is "champa" or "chaffa", in thai as "Leelawadee" and as "Camboja"in Indonesia.

Natural Frangipani oil is highly regarded in Ayurveda for centuries for its healing powers. Frangipani essential oil has a important place in aromatherapy due to the scent’s rejuvenating qualities for the mind and body. it is believed to effects deep internal cleansing that refreshes the Mind, body and soul.


Geranium Essential Oil


The Clearing Winds 

Pelargonium Graveolens: Irrisistable, compelling, bright, cleansing, blows your thoughts away, banishes negativity in all forms and occurrences.

Has a balancing effect on the skin making it suitable for dry, oily or problem skin. It is also calming to the nervous system, making it useful for treating anxiety, tension and restlessness.


Gardenia Essential Oil

The White Angel ”

Gardenia Grandiflora: Ravishing, highly compelling, uplifting, raising high, elegant, higher self, angels, growing into the true soul self

      Gardenia is considered to have calming, antidepressant as well as uplifting properties. It has heavy, strong sweet yet pleasing and romantic fragrance which is always been a precious drop.


Grapefruit Essential Oil Aromatherapy
Grapefruit Oil has a pleasantly sweet, tangy/tart aroma that blends well with a number of other essential oils.

Grapefruit (Citrus paradis/grandis)
This oil has a fresh citrus sweet odour. On the skin it is very cooling, cleansing and antiseptic, and is helpful for oily skin, open pores and acne. It has a balancing effect on the emotions, it's uplifting nature brightens up dark and depressive moods and boosts confidence.


” Wings "

Hyssopus Officinalis: Bright, fine, young, aristocratic, freedom, leads out of traps and cul-de-sacs, uplifting, gives you wings, see the bigger picture.

     Non-irritant, non-sensitizing; the oil is moderately toxic due to the pinocamphone content. To be used only in moderation and avoided during pregnancy and by epileptics. Contraindicated in cases of high blood pressure. 

Be sure to always follow label instructions.

The essential oil information provided on this Website is intended for Educational Purposes Only. This data is not considered complete and is not guaranteed to be accurate.The statements made on this website have not been evaluated by the FDA (U.S. Food & Drug Administration). Essential Oil products are not intended to diagnose, cure or prevent any disease. Please contact your physician or health care provider. The information provided by this website or this company is not a substitute for a face-to-face consultation with a health care provider, and should not be construed as individual medical advice. 

  • Do not take any oils internally and do not apply undiluted Essential Oils onto the skin without advanced essential oil knowledge or consultation from a Qualified Aromatherapist. 
  • If you are pregnant, epileptic, have liver damage, have cancer, or have any other medical problem, use oils only under the proper guidance of a qualified Medical Doctor.  Always consult with a healthcare professional before using any herbal remedy especially if pregnant, nursing, or taking other medicines
  • Consult a qualified Aromatherapist practitioner before using oils with children. 
  • For in-depth information on oil safety issues, read Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young.
  • ALWAYS Avoid contact with eyes. 
  • Keep out of reach of children. 
  • Protect from heat and light
  • When working with essential oils remember "less is more”
  • 100% pure Essential Oils can interfere with other prescribed medication or supplements being used.

  •  Julia Lawless, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils (Rockport, MA: Element Books, 1995)
  • Aromatherapy For Your Soul by Dr Silvia Hartmann

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